Incident gout and risk of first-time acute coronary syndrome: a prospective, population-based, cohort study in Sweden
Panagiota Drivelegka MD, PhD,Lennart T.H. Jacobsson MD,Ulf Lindström MD,Karin Bengtsson MD, PhD,Mats Dehlin MD
First published: 12 September 2022
To investigate the risk of first-time acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a large cohort of primary and secondary care patients with incident gout, compared to the general population.
Using register data for the period 2007 ̶ 2017, we conducted a prospective, population-based cohort with 20,146 patients with incident gout (mean age, 65.6 years; 67.4% males) and 83,517 matched population controls, without prior history of coronary heart disease. We calculated incidence rates (IR) and hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for baseline comorbidities and dispensed prescriptions. In a sensitivity analysis, we included gout cases and controls with no previously diagnosed comorbidity (6,075 cases and 44,091 controls).
The IR of first-time ACS was significantly increased in the gout cohort, compared to controls (9.1 vs 6.3/1,000 person-years). Unadjusted cox regression showed that gout patients had higher risk of first-time ACS compared to controls (HR, 1.44; 95%CI, 1.33-1.56), with higher HR in women (HR, 1.64; 95%CI, 1.41 ̶ 1.90) than in men (HR, 1.36; 95%CI, 1.24 ̶ 1.50). In multivariable analysis the risk diminished but remained significant (HR, 1.15; 95%CI, 1.06-1.25). The risk was similar in the sensitivity analysis (HR, 1.20; 95%CI, 1.01-1.44), and still higher in women (HR, 1.34; 95%CI, 0.86-2.08), than in men (HR, 1.18; 95%CI, 0.97-1.44).
Patients with incident gout have a 44% increased risk of first-time ACS, higher in women than in men. This risk is largely explained by the underlying comorbidities, but there is still a modestly increased risk that may be due to gout-related factors.