Hyperuricemia as a potential plausible risk factor for periodontitis

Abstract

Author:  Zi-yun Chen,Lu-wen Ye,Li Zhao,Zhao-jia Liang,Ting Yu,Jie Gao

Publication:  Medical Hypotheses

Publisher: Elsevier

Date: April 2020

Elevated blood uric acid (UA) levels have been positively associated with the severity of periodontitis. It thus brings out a hypothesis that hyperuricemia, a pathological elevation of blood UA, might be a risk factor for periodontitis. Namely, periodontitis individuals with Hu might acquire more severe periodontal destruction compared to those without Hu. To support the hypothesis, four aspects of evidences are proposed.

First, hyperuricemia and periodontitis share many metabolic and inflammatory comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases which are commonly related to elevated UA levels and gout.

Second, observational and interventional studies have found altered UA levels in blood and saliva in periodontitis patients or after periodontal treatment, suggesting an epidemiological connection between hyperuricemia and periodontitis.

Third, plausible immuno-metabolic mechanisms by which hyperuricemia might promote the progression of periodontitis are suggested, such as impaired immune response, oxidative stress, pathological bone remodeling and dysbiosis.

The last, our empirical data exhibited elevated UA levels in gingival tissue in periodontitis mice compared to controls. If the hypothesis is true, given the high prevalence of the two conditions, hyperuricemia would be a significant risk factor increasing the global burden of periodontal diseases.

Evidences on a directional correlation between hyperuricemia and periodontitis are sparse. Longitudinal and experimental studies would be necessary to determine the magnitude of periodontal risk, if any, exacerbated by hyperuricemia and the underlying mechanisms.

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